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Harindra Fernando

Harindra Joe Fernando

Wayne and Diana Murdy Endowed Professor

Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering & Earth Sciences

Wayne and Diana Murdy Endowed Professor
Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering

Principal Investigator

Wayne and Diana Murdy Endowed Professor
College of Engineering


Phone: 574-631-9346

Office: Cushing Hall 311-D


Ph.D, Johns Hopkins University, 1983

M.S., Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, John Hopkins University, 1982

B.S., Mechanical Engineering, University of Sri Lanka, 1979


Dr. Fernando received his B.Sc. in Mechanical Engineering (1979) from the University of Sri Lanka and M.S. (1982) and Ph.D. (1983) in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics from Johns Hopkins University. He received post-doctoral training in environmental engineering sciences at California Institute of Technology (1983-84). During 1984-2009, he was affiliated with the Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering at Arizona State University, (Assistant Professor 1984-87; Associate Professor 88-92; Professor (92-09). In 1994, Fernando was appointed the founding Director of the Center for Environmental Fluid Dynamics, a position he held till 2009, while holding a co-appointment with the School of Sustainability (2009). In 2010 January he joined the University of Notre Dame as Wayne and Diana Murdy Endowed Professor of Engineering and Geosciences, with the primary affiliation in the Department of Civil Engineering & Geological Sciences and a concurrent appointment in the Department of Aerospace & Mechanical Engineering.

Among awards and honors he received are the UNESCO Gold Medal for the Best Engineering Student of the Year (1979), Presidential Young Investigator Award (NSF, 1986), ASU Alumni Distinguished Research Award (1997), Rieger Foundation Distinguish Scholar Award in Environmental Sciences (2001), William Mong Lectureship from the University of Hong Kong (2004) and Life Time Achievement Award from the Sri Lanka Foundation of the USA (2007). He is a fellow of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, American Physical Society and American Meteorological Society. He was elected to the European Academy in 2009. In 2007, he was featured in the New York Times, International Herald Tribune and a dozen international news media for his work on hydrodynamics of beach defenses. In closing the year 2008, the Arizona Republic Newspaper honored him by including in "Tempe Five Who Matter" -- one of the five residents who have made a notable difference in the life of the city, in recognition of his work on Phoenix Urban Heat Island. He has held visiting professorships at the University of Cambridge (UK), ETH (Zurich), University of Toulon (France), Tel Aviv University (Israel) and University of Girona (Spain). Fernando was an AWU fellow at the Solar Energy Research Institute (1987-89) and a visiting scientist at the British Meteorological Office (1991-96).

He has served on numerous national and international committees and panels, more recently on the Sumatra Tsunami Survey Panel (NSF, 2005), Louisiana Coastal Area Science and Technology Board (2006-) and the American Geophysical Union Committee on Natural Disasters (2006). He serves on the editorial boards of Applied Mechanics Reviews (Associate Editor 1989- ), Theoretical and Computational Fluid Dynamics (Editor, 1997- ), Environmental Fluid Dynamics (Associate Editor, 2000- ), IAHR Journal of Eco-Environment (Associate Editor, 2007- ) and EGS Journal of Non-Linear Processes in Geophysics (Editor, 2010- ).

He has published more than 200 papers spanning some 55 different archival international journals covering basic fluid dynamics, experimental methods, oceanography, atmospheric sciences, environmental sciences and engineering, air pollution, alternative energy sources, acoustics, heat transfer, hydraulics and fluids engineering.

Recent Papers

Fernando, H.J.S. and Voropayev, S.A., "Shallow Flows in the Atmosphere and Oceans: Geophysical and Engineering Applications ," Journal of Hydro-Environment Research, 4, 83-87, 2010. doi:10.1016/j.jher.2010.04.012.

Krishnamurthy, R., Calhoun, R., and Fernando, H.J.S., "Large Eddy Simulation-Based Retrieval of Dissipation from Coherent Doppler Lidar Data," Boundary Layer Meteorology, BoundaryLayer Meteor, 136, 1, 45-57, 2010.

Retallack, C., Calhoun, R., Fernando, H.J.S., Raynor, K., Stuart, A. and Sutton, J., "Pollution Transport during Wagerup 2006: Case study August 28," Communications in Atmospheric Sciences, In Press, 2010.

Fernando, H.J.S. "Fluid Dynamics of Urban Atmospheres in Complex Terrain," Annual Reviews of Fluid Mechanics, 42, 365-389, 2010.

Lozovatsky, I., Roget, E., Planella, J., Fernando, H.J.S. and Liu, Z., "Intermittency of Near Bottom Turbulence in Tidal Flow on a Shallow Shelf," Journal of Geophysical Research (Oceans), 115, C05006, doi:10.1029/2009JC005325, 2010.

Fernando, H.J.S., Zajic, D., Di Sabatino, S., Dimitrova, R., Hedquist, B., and Dallman, A., "Flow, Turbulence and Pollutant Dispersion in Urban Atmospheres," Physics of Fluids, 22, 051301-19, 2010

Hill, M., Calhoun, R., Fernando, H.J.S., Wieser, W., Dörnbrack, D., Weissmann, M. Mayr, G., and Newsom, R."Coplanar Doppler Lidar Retrieval of Rotors from T-REX," Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 67(3), 713-729, 2010.

Hunt, J.C.R., Eames, I., Westerweel, J., Davidson, P.A., Voropayev, S, Fernando, H.J.S., Braza. M., "Thin Shear Layers - the Key to Turbulence Structure?" Journal of Hydro-Environment Research, 4, 75-82, 2010.

Shi, C., Fernando, H.J.S, Seto, E., and Muller, J-P., "The Efficacy of Satellite Information in Improving CMAQ/Models-3 Prediction of Ozone Episodes in the U.S.-Mexico Border," Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health, DOI 10.1007/s11869-010-0064-9, 2010.

Pardyjak, E., Fernando, H.J.S., Hunt, J.C.R., Grachev, A. and Anderson, J., Development of Nocturnal Flow and Transport in a Wide Open Valley, Meteorologische Zeitschrift, 18(1), 85-100, 2009.

Ovenden, N., Shaffer, S. and Fernando, H.J.S., "Determining the Impact of Meteorological Conditions on Noise Propagation Away from Freeway Corridors," Journal of the Acoustic Society of America, 126 (No1), 25-35, 2009.

Liu, Z., Hao, W., Lozovatsky, I. and Fernando, H.J.S. "Late Summer Stratification and Turbulence in the Yellow Sea," Journal of Marine Research, 77 459-472, 2009.

Parik, N., Liu, H. and Fernando, H.J.S. "Sensor Networks: Decentralized Monitoring and Subspace Classification of Events," Journal of General Systems, In Press, 2009.

Shi, C., Fernando, H.J.S. and Yang, J. "Contributors to Ozone Episodes in Three U.S./Mexico Border Twin-Cities," The Science of Total Environment, 407(18), 5128-5138, 2009.

Fernando, H.J.S. and Park, K-S. "Phoenix Heat Island: An Emergent Property of Rapid Urbanization," Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 90 (8) August, 1070-1071, 2009

Voropayev, S., Fernando, H.J.S. and Nath, C., "Thermal and Dynamic Surface Signatures of the Wake of a Submerged Sphere," Journal of Visualization, (Portfolio Paper) Vol.12, No.4, October 2009.

Kit, E., Cherkassy, A., Sant, T. and Fernando, H.J.S., "In-situ Calibration of Hot-film Probes using a Co-located Sonic Anemometer: Implementation of a Neural Network," Journal of Atmospheric and Ocean Technology, 27(1), 23-41, 2010.

Voropayev, S.A., Balasubramanian, S. and Fernando, H.J.S., "Grain Sorting on Ripples in Heterogeneous Sediments," Journal of Visualization, 11(1), 3 (portfolio paper), 2008.

Princevac, M., Hunt, J.C.R. and Fernando, H.J.S. Quasi-Steady Katabatic Winds Over Long Slopes in Wide Valleys," Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 65 (2), 627-643, 2008.

Lozovatsky, S., Liu, Z., H. Wei, and Fernando, H.J.S., "Tides and Mixing in the Northwestern East China Sea," Part 1: Rotating and Reversing Tidal Flows, Continental Shelf Research, 28, 318-337, 2008.

Lozovatsky, S., Liu, Z., H. Wei, and Fernando, H.J.S., "Tides and Mixing in the Northwestern East China Sea," Part II: Near Bottom Turbulence, Continental Shelf Research, 28, 338-350, 2008.

Zhao, Z. and Fernando, H.J.S. "Numerical Modeling of a Sagging Pipeline Using an Eulerian Two-Phase Model," Journal of Turbulence, 9(9), 1-20, 2008.

Voropayev, S., Fernando, H.J.S and Morison, R., "Dipolar Eddies in a Decaying Stratified Turbulent Flow," Physics of Fluids, 20, 026602, 2008.

Fernando, H.J.S., Smarawickrama, S., Balasubramanian, S., Hettiarachchi, S.L.L. and Voropayev, S., "Effects of Porous Barriers such as Coral Reefs on Coastal Wave Propagation," IAHR Journal of Hydro-Environmental Research, 1, 187-194, 2008.

Lozovatsky, I., Fernando, H.J.S. and Shapovalov, S.M., "Deep Ocean Mixing on Basin Scale: Inference from North Atlantic Transects," Deep Sea Research, Part I 55, 1075-1089. 2008.

Choi, Y-J and Fernando, H.J.S., "Implementation of a Windblown Dust Parameterization into MODELS-3/CMAQ: Application to Episodic PM Events in the U.S./Mexico border," Atmospheric Environment 42 (2008), 6039-6046, 2008.

Shi, C., Fernando, H.J.S., Zifa, W, An, X., Wu, Q., "Tropospheric NO2 Columns over East Central China: Comparisons between SCIAMACHY measurements and nested CMAQ Simulations," Atmospheric Environment, 42 (30), 7165-7173, 2008.

Fernando, H.J.S., "Polimetrics: The Quantitative Study of Urban Systems (And its Applications to Atmospheric and Hydro Environments)," Journal of Environmental Fluid Mechanics, 8(5-6), 397-409, doi:10.1007/s10652-008-9116-1, 2008.

Princevac, M., and Fernando, H.J.S., "Morning Break-up of Cold Pools in Complex Terrain," Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 616, 99-109, 2008.

Balasubramanian, S., Voropayev, S. and Fernando, H.J.S., "Grain Sorting and Decay of Sand Ripples under Oscillatory Flow and Turbulence," Journal of Turbulence, 9(17): 1-19, 2008.

Emmanuel, R. and Fernando, H.J.S., "Effects of Urban Form and Thermal Properties in Urban Heat Island Mitigation in Hot Humid and Hot Arid Climates: the Cases of Colombo, Sri Lanka and Phoenix, USA," Journal of Climate Research, 34, 241-251, 2007.

Princevac, M. and Fernando, H.J.S. "A Criterion for the Generation of Turbulent Anabatic Flows," Physics of Fluids, 19, 05102, DOI: 10.1063/1.2775932, 2007.

Voropayev, S., Fernando, H.J.S., Smirnov, S. and Morrison, R., On Surface Signatures Generated by Submersed Momentum Sources, Physics of Fluids, 19, 076603, 1-10, 2007.

Li, K., Zhang, P., Crittenden, J.C., Guhathakurta, S., Sawhney, A., Fernando, H., McCartney, P., Grimm, N., Joshi, H., Konjevod, G., Choi Y.J., Winter, S., Gerrity, D., Kahhat, R., Chen, Y., Allenby, B., and Torrens P., "Development of a Framework for Quantifying the Environmental Impacts of Urban Development and Construction Practices," Environmental Science and Technology, 41, 5130-5136, 2007.

Choi,Y-J. and Fernando, H.J.S. "Simulation of Smoke Plumes from Agricultural Burns: Application to the San Luis/Rio Colorado Airshed in the U.S./Mexico Border, The Science of Total Environment, 388 (1-3), 270-289, 2007.

F.Y. Testik, Voropayev, S.I., Fernando, H.J.S. and Balasubramanian, S., "Mines Burial in the Shoaling Zone: Scaling of Laboratory Results to Oceanic Situations," IEEE Journal of Ocean Engineering, IEEE Journal, 32(1), 204-213, 2007.

Rotter, J., Fernando, H.J.S., and Kit, E., "Evolution of a Forced Stratified Mixing Layer," Physics of Fluids, 19, 065107 (1-10), 2007.

Zhao, Z. and Fernando, H.J.S., "Simulation of Scour around Pipelines using an Euler-Euler Coupled Two Phase Model," Journal of Environmental Fluid Mechanics, 7(2), 121-142, 2007.

Lee, S.M., Fernando, H.J.S. and Grossman-Clarke, S. Modeling of Ozone Distribution in the State of Arizona in Support of 8-Hour Non-Attainment Area Boundary Designations, Environmental Modeling and Prediction, 12, 63-74, 2007.

Zilitinkevich, S., Hunt, J.C.R., Esau, I.N., Grachev, A., Lalas, D.R., Akylas E., Tombrou, M., Fairall, C.W., Fernando, H.J.S., Baklanov, A.A., and Joffre, S.M., "The Influence of Large Convective Eddies on the Surface-Layer Turbulence," Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 132, 1423-1456, 2006.

Testik, F., Voropayev, S., Balasubramanian, S and Fernando, H.J.S. "On Equilibrium Profiles of Asymmetric Sand Ripples under Nonlinear Waves," Physics of Fluids, 18, 108101, 1-4, 2006.

Lee, J-H., Lozovatsky, I., Jang S.T., Jang, C.J., Hong, C.S., and Fernando, H.J.S., "Episodes of Nonlinear Internal Wave in the Northern East China Sea, Geophysical Research Letters, 33, L18601. doi:10.1029/2006GL027136, 2006.

Calhoun, R., Heap, R., Princevac, M., Newsome, R., Fernando, H. and Ligon,, D., Virtual towers using coherent Doppler Lidar during JU 2003, Journal of Applied Meteorology, 45(8), 1116-1126, 2006.

Goff, J., Liu, P., L.-F., Higman, B., Morton, R., Jaffe, B.E., Fernando, H., Lynett, P., Fritz, H., Synolakis, C. and Fernando, S., "The December 26th 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami in Sri Lanka," Earthquake Spectra, 22, S3, S155-S172, 2006.

Choi, Y-J., Hyde, P. and Fernando, H.J.S., "Modeling of episodic particular matter events using a 3-D air quality model with fine grid: Applications to a pair of cities in the U.S./Mexico border" Atmospheric Environment, 40, 5181-5201, 2006.

Lozovatsky, I., Roget, E., Figueroa, M., Fernando, H.J.S. and Shapovalov, S., "Sheared Turbulence in Weakly Stratified Upper Ocean," Deep Sea Research, 53, 387-407, 2006.

Lee, S.M., Giori, W., Princevac, M. and Fernando, H.J.S. "A New Turbulent Parameterization for the Nocturnal PBL Over Complex Terrain," Boundary Layer Meteorology, 119, 109-134, 2006.

Fernando, H.J.S. and Weil, J., "An Essay: Whither the SBL? - A Shift in the Research Agenda," Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society (BAMS), In Press.

Choukulkar, A., Calhoun, R and Fernando, H.J.S. "The use of lidar-detected smoke puff evolution for dispersion calculations," Meteorological Applications, In Press.

Sharma, A., Brown, J. And Fernando, H.J.S., "Numerical modeling of flow in the condensate polisher vessel of a nuclear reactor, with applications to PVNGS," Nuclear Technology, In Press.

Summary of Activities/Interests

We have extensive experience in conducting fundamental and applied research on environmental and industrial flows. We seek collaborative research opportunities on a variety of topics -- in particular, atmospheric and oceanic research with applications to ship and submarine wakes, ocean circulation, mine countermeasures, wind energy, contaminant dispersion and air pollution. We have published extensively on these topics, and reprints and reports are available upon request. Some of the interest areas are listed below; it is not an exhaustive list but was compiled to illustrate the diversity of topics, expertise and tools.

Wakes of Maneuvering Submarines and Submersibles:
With the support from the Office of Naval Research, we have developed a facility to conduct research on wakes of submerged maneuvering bodies, especially in the oceanic thermocline. We have a large water tank, with capabilities for obtaining density stratification, in which model submarines can perform different maneuvers. The interest is the dynamics of wakes and their penetration to the upper oceanic layers (Figure 1). We have IR remote sensing capabilities to study surface-penetrating wake signatures, and a suit of advanced flow diagnostic technologies is available for wake evolution studies.


Figure 1: Velocity contours behind a self-propelled submarine model (scales are arbitrary); the vertical profiles at the middle of the figure are shown to the right.

IR Imaging of Ship Wakes and Surface Features
Recently we concluded a study for Raytheon Inc. on surface kinematics and dynamics of dual-propeller ship wakes based on IR Imaging (Figure 2). Very high resolution (>0.025K) IR Imaging capabilities were employed for this study. The same facility that is used for submarine research was used. In general, we have IR remote sensing capabilities for surface flow and wave studies as well as internal-surface wave interaction studies (

Mine Burial in Littoral Waters/Coastal Morphodynamics
Over the past fifteen years, we have conducted research on mine burial in surf and shoaling zones in support of Navy’s mine countermeasures efforts. The major approach was laboratory experiments with a long wave tank that has a movable (sandy) bottom. Complementary numerical and theoretical work was also conducted. Our research has been incorporated to the Mine Burial Expert System developed by APL/JHU for the Navy. We have also conducted research on littoral ripples, in support of the SAX-04 experiment. Ocean Measurements
Through the support of the Office of Naval Research, we have conducted internal-waves, turbulence and circulation measurements in the East China Sea (Figure 3), with applications to ocean acoustic scattering and circulation modeling. In an earlier study, CTD and turbulence structures were also mapped in several trans-Atlantic cross sections. The aim was to investigate the effects of ocean bottom topography on benthic boundary layer properties, internal waves and turbulent exchange processes. The latter determine eddy coefficients at various oceanic layers. While previous measurements were done with loaned instruments, we are in the process of acquiring an array of instruments, including ADV, ADCP and microstructure profilers.



Figure 2a: Measurements Jiaozhou Bay (that opens up to east China sea)
Figure 3b: Solitary waves in the East China Sea

Atmospheric Measurements
We employ a suite of instruments (Doppler Lidars, sodars, RASS, Ceilometers, IR Cameras, sonic anemometers and tethered balloons) for atmospheric measurements (Figure 4). Recently we developed a technique in which a combination of hot-film and sonic anemometry is used in an automated mode to measure a broad spectrum of scales in boundary-layer turbulence. Our expertise with diverse instruments that can interrogate a range of scales is extremely useful in energy and air pollution research. We also employ Dustracks for aerosol measurements

fernando17.png Figure 3a: Doppler Lidar Capability
Figure 3b: Tethered balloons in the field

Atmospheric Modeling
For the past ten years, we have conducted extensive meteorological and air quality modeling for the State of Arizona. The modeling tools used consist of MM5, WRF, WRF-CHEM, CMAQ, CALPUFF, CALMET and QUIC models. In addition, we have developed a special urbanized version of MM5, which is available for such studies as urban heat island, contaminant dispersion and pollution mitigation. Our computational work uses nested modeling from synoptic to pedestrian scales, through downscaling via mesoscale and CFD models (Figures 5). We have also developed our own CFD code for flow and dispersion calculations.

fernando19.pngFigure 4a: Nested model simulation of a toxic vapor plume in Oklahoma City. Large-scale, medium-scale and city-scale (computational fluid dynamics) models are shown together.
Figure 4b: A Scatter plot of simulated and observed ozone concentrations in San Diego county. MM5 mesoscale model was used for flow and CMAQ for air quality.

Industrial Fluid Mechanics
Our expertise encompasses numerous industrial problems, and our approach includes the use of smaller test facilities for rapid investigations and the use of Computational Codes such as FLUENT for detailed flow calculations. Some on-going projects include research on air entrainment to side branch lines of the Palo Verde Nuclear Power Generating Station and experimental and numerical (FLUENT) simulation of convection in Strategic Petroleum Reserves (for Sandia National Laboratories); see Figure 6.


Figure 5: An ongoing study on the evolution of a turbulent jet in a confined (low aspect-ratio) container with applications to degassing in the US Strategic Petroleum Reserves.


Engineering Faculty Receive DURIP Grants Totaling More than $1.8 Million

July 14, 2015

Four faculty from the College of Engineering at the University of Notre Dame have received Defense University Research Instrument Program (DURIP) grants from the Department of Defense (DOD) for 2015, totaling more than $1.8 million.

Notre Dame & Better Life Foundation Media Attention in Seychelles

March 26, 2015

Professor Laura Leo fielded questions from Seychelles Media regarding the ASIRI RAWI project. Leo explained the importance of Seychelles and its climate patterns to the project as a whole. She noted that Seychelles is "actually the point of origin of all this, so it is really crucial to understanding how this oscillation and observation will evolve and develop."

ASIRI RAWI Project Featured in Seychelles Newspaper

March 26, 2015

After the Seychelles media, SJO, interviewed Professor Laura Leo and graduate researcher Patrick Conry of Notre Dame, the Seychelles News Agency also featured a story on the research of the Notre Dame team regarding the ASIRI RAWI project. Research is currently being conducted on the island of Seychelles in the Indian Ocean. The goal of the research is to better understand Madden Julian oscillations (MJO), which is the underlying phenomena of rainfall patterns around the equator of the earth. There are also simultaneous studies being conducted in Singapore and Sri Lanka in conjunction with the Seychelles research.

Signing of MOU between Notre Dame and Seychelles

March 26, 2015

The National Meteorological Services of Seychelles and the Better Life Foundation, a local NGO, are partnering with the University of Notre Dame to conduct the ASIRI: RAWI project, a regional study of weather conditions in the Indian Ocean. The Indian Ocean island nations of Sri Lanka and Singapore have also signed a Memorandum of Understanding.